What is osteoporosis, How can be avoided
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone tissue, which most often affects the elderly and women of the climacteric period. However, to think about the risk of the disease is important even in youth, in order to prevent the consequences of this disease as much as possible
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of the musculoskeletal system, namely the bone component. In the presence of this disease, changes occur not only in bone density but also in its architectonics (structure). With a change in the structure of the bones, they become more fragile, and, the more pronounced osteoporosis, the greater the probability of injury even with a small load. In the extreme stages, “spontaneous” fractures are also possible.
Osteoporosis distinguishes primary (problems are associated only with the osseous system) and secondary (osteoporosis occurs against the backdrop of other diseases or when taking medications that affect calcium metabolism, for example, steroid hormones)
Factors of osteoporosis development
Most often, women suffer from osteoporosis after the onset of menopause (for Ukraine this age is 45-50 years), but men as primary as secondary forms also suffer. The most common fracture sites are the neck of the hip, the spine and the bones of the forearm, although there are also fractures in other places. Fractures of the femoral neck are widespread and are accompanied by high mortality. It is expected that their absolute number will double over the next 25 years in developed countries and, probably, everywhere.
The development of osteoporosis is influenced by many factors, including nutrition, sex, age, physical activity, bad habits. Regardless of the age of postmenopausal women, the risk of fractures is three times higher than in older men.
What is the diagnosis of osteoporosis?
Unfortunately, there are no obvious symptoms of this disease. But if a person has frequent fractures of bones “on level ground”, then you should undergo a survey.
The “gold standard” for diagnosing osteoporosis and assessing the risk of its complications is the determination of bone mineral density using two-photon X-ray absorptiometry, densitometry. Although other techniques (such as ultrasonic densitometry or computed tomography) are also successfully used to determine the risk of fractures. In recent years, the quality of bone tissue (TBS) has also been used in clinical practice.
The result of the study depends on whether treatment is necessary. As a rule, the determination of bone density is prescribed if:
- radiographic signs of osteopenia and/or deformation of the vertebrae;
- reduction in growth, kyphosis of the thoracic spine;
- fractures in the past with minor trauma (for example, when falling from the height of their own growth);
- long-term use of glucocorticosteroids;
- hypogonadism in both men and women;
- chronic diseases accompanied by the development of osteoporosis (eg, hyperparathyroidism or hyperthyroidism);
- fractures of the femoral neck from the next of kin;
- low body mass index (<19 kg / m2);
- low intake of calcium (less than 1000 mg per day).
Prevention of osteoporosis
The main thing in the prevention of this disease is proper nutrition with the maintenance of normal body weight throughout life.
For prevention is important:
must include in the diet products containing a sufficient amount of calcium
- (dairy products) to 1000 mg/day from the very childhood;
- increase physical activity;
- maintain a normal hormonal background;
- quit smoking and alcohol abuse;
- to refuse or to reduce to a minimum the use of glucocorticosteroids or simultaneously to apply medicines for the prevention of osteoporosis;
- actively use vitamin D dosage forms and/or regularly spend time outside the home for the elderly;
For the elderly, there are now programs to prevent falls, as well as hip protection for people at high risk of falls.
Currently, for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, there are constantly appearing more and more new drugs.