Vaginitis: causes, symptoms and treatment
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa caused by one or more causes. The disease is delicate, and often women are embarrassed to treat him to the doctor. According to gynecologists, every second woman encounters vaginitis at least once in her life, especially at a young age.
The share of vaginitis among all pathologies of the female reproductive system accounts for about 50%. An additional factor in weakening the local protection of the vagina is a bad environment.
Therefore, residents of megacities, even more often visit doctors, have access to high-quality medicine, but they still suffer from them and other female diseases. Of course, the dirty air itself cannot be the cause, but here is the way of life of urban residents, the frequent stresses do their job.
Vaginitis may have an acute, subacute or chronic course. Vaginitis secretions can be purulent.
Chronic vaginitis manifests itself sluggishly, pain and discomfort with it may be absent and appear only in the period of exacerbation. Usually, hypothermia or alcohol ingress, which reduces the immune defense, becomes a provocateur.
Acute Vaginitis causes
The most common:
- Non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, too frequent or rare washing, constant douching after sexual intercourse. Their uselessness as a method of contraception has long been proven.
- Allergy to linen, latex, intimate hygiene products.
- Wearing tight, uncomfortable underwear leads to microtraumas – give preference to breathable cotton underwear every day.
- Abortion, childbirth, diagnostic curettage also cause vaginitis, so if you have time, it is better to treat all infections first, and only then do interventions.
- Hormonal adjustment (pregnancy, menopause) – at this time, the amount of estrogen varies greatly, which leads to changes in the composition of vaginal mucus.
- Infection of STIs (sexually transmitted infections): Chlamydia is especially dangerous and widespread, can lead to impaired
- reproductive function. There is also gonococcal and mycoplasma vaginitis.
Common non-STI pathogens of vaginitis:
- Streptococcus is common everywhere, especially often causes a sore throat, and after it may be vaginitis, and other infections.
- Mushrooms – the genus Candida – the most typical representatives, in small quantities are not dangerous.
- Gardnerella – with strong immunity does not reproduce but is almost always present in the vagina. During sex is not transmitted. The correct name for the condition in which it is growing vigorously is bacterial vaginosis.
- E. coli – most often enters the vagina when improperly washed out.
All of these infections can penetrate the uterus and block the tubes. If untreated, microorganisms move upward rather quickly. And most importantly – in some cases, the picture is erased. Identify it easily when examining a gynecological chair.
Burning, itching, and discomfort during intercourse are most common. There may be a discharge that is different from the usual, with an unpleasant odor, for example, sour or fish. If any of the above concerns you, put off sexual contact for a while and do not self-medicate!
Microsporia vaginal smear – the most informative method. But some infections can be detected only by PCR analysis (polymerase chain reaction), their pathogens are so small. It is better to do this research once a year when visiting a gynecologist. The fact is that some infections are hidden. Only a few pathogens actively manifest themselves, especially with a recent infection.
Trichomonas (a sexually transmitted disease) gives a characteristic yellow-green discharge with foam. If you have candidal vaginitis, you will notice loose white flakes resembling cottage cheese on linen. Do not think that one pill can solve the problem here. This is a marketing ploy.
Usually, the doctor prescribes locally as well as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets. If there is a need, local or general hormone therapy is prescribed. Immunomodulators can be prescribed, usually in the form of suppositories to enhance immunity and suppress opportunistic flora. This flora suppresses the natural microflora in the vagina, although by itself does not harm. The number of beneficial bacteria decreases, and they need to be colonized with beneficial lactic acid bacteria and other microorganisms that normally live there. To do this, there are candles with bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. It is useful to consume more fermented milk products, fruits, and vegetables, and from the sweet and baking – give up.
If you are often chased by fungal infections, then it is worth checking the condition of the intestines and thoroughly review your diet. Also, the number of fungi grows with immunodeficiencies. When a fungal flora is detected, antifungal agents are prescribed, for example, Miconazole, Fluconazole and its analogs. If the causative agent is Trichomonas, Metronidazole is used for suppression. If allergies are identified, it is important to find its source: intimate gels, sprays, napkins or underwear.
According to the testimony prescribed physiotherapy, spa treatment. If vaginitis is chronic, then it is better to go to a gynecologic sanatorium when the process dies out, during remission. Baths, muds or medicinal showers can be assigned.
After the end of the course of treatment, which lasts about a week, you need to pass repeated tests. In chronic vaginitis, relapses are possible. You should not allow them to appear by reducing the amount of alcohol you take, avoiding hypothermia and using a condom during sexual intercourse.
If a woman suffers from chronic vaginitis, the probability of her becoming infected with HIV and hepatitis increases several times. This is due to the fact that during sexual contacts, the mucosa is additionally injured, some blood may be released. Viruses easily enter the bloodstream. Usually, when examining women with chronic forms of vaginitis, several pathogens are detected at once, but beneficial bacteria are not detected. Complicated treatment, you have to take several drugs, must be assigned protection for the liver.
The best way to prevent vaginitis is to maintain intimate hygiene. Endocrine diseases such as diabetes and thyroid dysfunctions need to be treated promptly.
Against the background of these diseases, the hormonal background, in general, is changing, and with it the composition of the vaginal microflora. Be sure to take drugs prescribed by an endocrinologist. It is still quite possible that the intrauterine device is an additional traumatic factor. Change the contraceptive to another at the first signs of an inflammatory process.
To install the IUD, choose a competent gynecologist. The same applies to abortion. It is better not to do them, but if required, choose a medical or vacuum abortion, do it in the early stages and from a proven doctor. Abortion is a huge trauma for the body, not only because it is a gross mechanical effect, but also because of hormonal failure. And already it entails vaginitis and other inflammatory processes.
In girls, vaginitis can occur after influenza or measles, so timely vaccination is the best way to prevent the disease. More serious consequences are specific to vaginitis than non-specific. And here the main precautionary measure is the use of a condom. Even with a regular partner, this tool is more convenient than others, since it does not contain hormones (like pills) and does not injure the mucous (like a spiral). To improve the sensations, ultra-thin condoms are sold.
Prevention of vaginitis during pregnancy
To prevent vaginitis from getting out during pregnancy, it is better to be treated at the planning stage. Pass the necessary tests, including a smear on the flora. An extended popular microflora study is Femoflor. It shows both the normal representatives living in the vagina (the same sticks of Deierlein, which play the role of protection against “strangers”), as well as opportunistic (ureaplasma) and pathogenic bacteria.
If any symptoms of vaginitis and manifest during pregnancy, then women who pay enough attention to the planning and testing, they will be easier. The gynecologist will prescribe the safe local funds authorized during this exciting and important period. Sometimes severe forms of infections can interfere with natural delivery, a cesarean is prescribed.
Vaginitis is the same disease like any other, so do not hesitate to ask for help. Self-medication is a waste of time, and it can be dangerous. With such an arsenal of tools that are available to modern gynecology, women simply have to live and enjoy intimate life and motherhood. Most survey methods do not cause much discomfort. If desired, you can be examined even anonymously. Now there are many private laboratories doing analyzes quickly and conveniently for patients, without queues and unnecessary stress. Their network is especially wide in large cities.
Treat yourself with love. Be healthy!