Thyroid gland: How not to miss the problem
The function of the thyroid gland is to produce hormones necessary for the maintenance of many processes in the body. Therefore, fluctuations in the production of hormones both in the direction of excess and in the direction of lack, affect health and well-being. It is important to suspect the problem in time and to cope with it in order to avoid serious consequences
What is the thyroid responsible for?
The metabolism in the body is controlled by the hormones of the thyroid If hormones are not enough, all metabolic processes are slowed down. If the hormones are more than necessary, they are accelerated. Both that and another badly affects a status of an organism. With accelerated metabolism, people lose weight sharply with a fairly balanced diet and adequate physical exertion. When slow – on the contrary, get better
The thyroid affects the nervous system. If the hormones are more than necessary, the person becomes irritable, anxious, whiny, neurasthenic. Thyroid hormones, in this case, excite the nervous system, constantly stimulate it. If hormones are not enough, it is accompanied by lethargy drowsiness, muscle weakness, speech retardation
The cardiovascular system also suffers from thyroid dysfunction. With increased function, palpitation is observed. Sometimes, with a decreased function of the thyroid gland, the heartbeat may also become more frequent, as well as fluctuations in blood pressure both upward and downward. As a rule, against the background of a lack of thyroid hormones, cholesterol rises, which leads to a more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases
If we talk about the gastrointestinal tract, then with a decrease in the function of the thyroid gland, there is a decrease in the outflow of bile, constipation, and with increased – on the contrary, diarrhea.
As fluctuations of hormones of a thyroid gland, the reproductive system suffers. The menstrual cycle is broken, the libido is reduced, ovulation is broken, it is impossible to conceive or difficult to bear the child. Such problems arise both in the reduction and excess of hormones
On the skin and hair, thyroid dysfunction also has a negative effect. It can be an intense hair loss, swelling and dry skin with lack of hormones. With a large production of hormones sweating is observed, a person is constantly hot. While with a lack of hormones, on the contrary, a person freezes even in hot weather.
What diseases cause thyroid dysfunction?
All diseases can be divided into three groups:
flowing with increased function of the thyroid gland: thyrotoxicosis, autoimmune thyroiditis in the acute stage, subacute thyroiditis;
flowing with reduced function: autoimmune thyroiditis, which leads to a decrease in thyroid function, chronic thyroiditis, nodal goiter, flowing with a decreased function of the thyroid gland, hypothyroidism;
all diseases, except for thyrotoxicosis, can occur for a certain time and with normal thyroid function. At the same time, there can be no symptoms, only minor discomfort can be felt, which can be ignored. In this case, there may be formations on the thyroid gland both benign and malignant. Therefore, it is recommended to check the thyroid gland once a year.
Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the thyroid gland
Radiation greatly affects the thyroid gland, therefore, in connection with the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, it is prescribed to all to undergo a preventive examination once a year. In addition, this body is influenced by exposure to active sun, smoking, various disturbances in metabolic processes. It is also necessary to check the thyroid gland for pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Recommended preventive examinations for adolescents, because in the pubertal period there is a hormonal adjustment.
For examination of the thyroid gland should consult an endocrinologist. He makes an examination, collects an anamnesis. The next stage is the ultrasound of the thyroid gland. Based on the results of ultrasound diagnosis, a blood test for hormones to determine the function of the thyroid gland and, if necessary, to determine antibodies to the thyroid gland cells (for diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis) is prescribed.
Based on the results of the examinations, the endocrinologist prescribes treatment. To regulate the function of the thyroid gland hormone therapy is prescribed. But sometimes only the intake of certain substances, for example, iodine or selenium, eliminates problems with the thyroid gland. There are various nutritional supplements or herbs to regulate the function of the thyroid gland, but without consulting a doctor and preliminary diagnosis they should not be used, because in some diseases they can lead to a worsening of the situation.
Prophylaxis of thyroid diseases: avoid active sun
- give up smoking;
- in time, spend treatment of foci of chronic infection (chronic tonsillitis, maxillary sinusitis, also problems with teeth negatively affect the thyroid gland);
- Once a year, go through an ultrasound of the thyroid gland.