Liposuction the methods and techniques
Each of us wants to be beautiful, and a slender figure is one of the important components of external perfection Many people support the form with the help of diets or playing sports, but not always it gives the expected result. Then aesthetic medicine comes to the rescue: according to the statistics of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPS), liposuction in 2016 was the second most popular plastic surgery among women, giving way to surgery only for surgery to correct the breasts
What is the essence of the operation and how is it conducted?
What is Liposuction?
Many people think that liposuction is a kind of way to fight excess weight, a “quick slimming” option. This opinion is erroneous. Liposuction is a cosmetic surgery, the main purpose of which is to get rid of fat deposits in problem areas. In women, it is the hips, buttocks, lower abdomen, knee area, back. In men, “fat traps” most often – the area of the chest and abdomen.
Attempts to develop such an operational methodology that would allow modeling a figure by removing adipose tissue have been undertaken since the beginning of the 20th century. Various methods were used, however, they were traumatic and often led to complications. Only in the late 1970s a method was developed that is still in use today: adipose tissue, previously subjected to destruction, is removed through special cannulae
Despite a sufficient amount of information on the essence of liposuction, many confuse this operation with abdominoplasty – an operation to correct abdominal defects. During abdominoplasty, excess skin, subcutaneous fat deposits are removed, the plastic muscle can be performed if there is such a need. The operation is performed only in the abdomen. Liposuction is a much less traumatic intervention that is performed in different parts of the body and does not involve manipulation of the skin.
Indications for conduction
Despite the great attractiveness of the operation to create a beautiful silhouette, it cannot be carried out “at will”. For liposuction, there are indications and contraindications.
Indications for liposuction are:
- presence of local fatty deposits, which can not be removed by other methods (physical exercises, diet, massage, etc.), disproportionate obesity;
- sufficient turgor of the patient’s skin (this is important for further effective rehabilitation after liposuction);
excess weight not exceeding 30% of the norm
Again, with a high percentage of excess weight, the operation will not produce the expected effect, since it is not a way to combat obesity. In addition, there may be problems with sagging of the skin. In this regard, liposuction is usually not carried out to people older than 50-55 years their skin loses its elasticity and the ability to self-contract.
As with any other medical manipulation, liposuction has its own contraindications. Patients with large excess weight or a noticeable excess of skin, as well as with flabby skin, this operation is undesirable.
- In addition, liposuction is not indicated in the following cases:
- exacerbation of chronic diseases, as well as infectious diseases;
- cardiovascular diseases in the acute stage;
- impaired blood clotting;
- impaired liver or kidney function;
Whether liposuction is dangerous: possible complications
There is an opinion that liposuction is a simple intervention, after which the patient can immediately leave the clinic and return to the usual way of life. This is a misconception: only if all the doctor’s recommendations are followed, the recovery period will pass easily, and the result will please both the patient and the surgeon.
It should be borne in mind that after the liposuction some complications are possible. Let’s list the main ones.
- Anemia. If a large amount of adipose tissue is removed during liposuction, then part of the blood circulating in the body is removed along with it. This can cause anemia.
- Hematomas and seromas (congestion in the tissues of serous fluid). It also usually occurs with a large amount of removed fat. To avoid these problems, you need to wear compression underwear.
- Scars on the skin, hyperpigmentation, impaired skin sensitivity. Typically, the traces that remain on the skin after liposuction are small. But if the body reacts to the procedure with inflammation, the scar can darken. This process is caused by the activation of melanocyte cells in the skin area. With hyperpigmentation, you can cope with the help of hardware procedures.
- Sagging of the skin. After liposuction, the effect of the blown ball can be observed – the skin does not come into tonus and sags. To reduce this risk, it is necessary to wear compression underwear in the mode recommended by the doctor.
- Unevenness, asymmetry of the body after liposuction. During the procedure, the doctor tries to remove fat deposits evenly, but this is not always possible. Patients, in turn, may violate the rules of the recovery period: not to comply with the regime of wearing compression linen, it’s too early to start playing sports, etc. This leads to the formation of irregularities and hillocks
Types of liposuction
The volume of adipose tissue removed during liposuction can be different: someone needs to slightly adjust the area around the knees, and someone needs to remove a significant “fat depot” in the thigh area. To solve each of the problems, there are three main types of liposuction.
During liposuction through a small puncture under the skin, a thin cannula is inserted. At the other end of it there is a vacuum apparatus, due to which the subcutaneous fat is removed (“sucked off”). During this manipulation, the fat tissue is not subjected to any additional action, except mechanical – due to the movement of the cannula. That’s why with the help of dry liposuction you can remove relatively small volumes of tissue (1-1,5 l), usually in the region of the hips, knees or chin
Wet, or tumescent
During this procedure, you can remove up to 5 liters of fat. In adipose tissue is introduced Klein solution, which contains lidocaine, adrenaline and saline solution. Lidocaine relieves pain, adrenaline causes a spasm of blood vessels, which reduces blood loss, and saline is needed to “break” the fat tissue. The latter is produced using ultrasound and laser devices, and then the fat is removed through the cannula
Super-moist (hyper-lime scent) liposuction
Removal of a large amount of adipose tissue is complicated by the fact that it contains blood and lymph. “Extruding” these fluids from adipose tissue, you can make liposuction more effective. To do this, a solution is introduced into the adipose tissue, similar in composition to the Klein solution, but also contains a special component – the buffer. It as it squeezes blood and lymphatic vessels, not allowing the release of their contents into tissues. Fat cells, in turn, are surrounded on all sides by the surrounding liquid, which facilitates their removal.
In the process of super-moist liposuction, it is possible to remove up to 10 liters of adipose tissue, which helps to reduce body weight and create an optimal contour.
Preparing for an operation
Preparation for the operation begins with a visit to the doctor, which finds out what exactly the patient wants to do, from what areas to remove adipose tissue, assesses how possible such an operation is. An examination is mandatory to clarify the patient’s body weight, skin condition, the condition of problem areas
If the surgeon comes to the conclusion that the patient’s problem can be solved with the help of liposuction, then preparation for the operation begins. In particular, you need to undergo a series of studies (blood and urine analysis, ECG), you may need the ultrasound of internal organs, and in case of any problems, consult a specialist. Be sure to have a separate consultation with an anesthesiologist. When all the results are obtained, the doctor decides on the operation.
Before it starts, the problem areas are marked out: the doctor does this directly on the patient’s skin. After this, the patient is ready for anesthesia
How Liposuction Works
Liposuction is usually performed under general anesthesia, but with small volumes can under epidural anesthesia with sedation. After the patient falls asleep, the doctor treats the skin with an antiseptic and begins to perform injections (if moist or super-moist liposuction is chosen). The next stage is the introduction through the small incisions of the cannula and the actual removal of the subcutaneous fat.
The duration of the operation is from 30 minutes to several hours: it all depends on the amount of fat that must be removed from the body. After completion of all manipulations, the doctor imposes small seams – about 5 mm in length. And directly in the operating room, while the patient is still on the table, the doctor puts on him a compression jersey.
This is important
Wearing compression linen is the most important time of rehabilitation after surgery. It is necessary because as a result of the removal of adipose tissue between the skin and the muscles there is a kind of free space. If you do not wear compressive laundry, then this space can easily fill with liquid, the swelling will begin. In addition, compression helps the skin to tighten faster and not to sag after the operation. The third important point is the prevention of blood clots, metabolism, and circulation of fluids in tissues. When wearing compression linen, tissue healing and recovery is faster
Since the operation is performed most often under general anesthesia, the patient needs to spend at least a day in the hospital under the supervision of the operating surgeon. At this time, pain can occur, sometimes the temperature rises, which is the norm
During the next 2-3 days, the swelling of the tissues usually increases, which begins to shift downwards by about 7 days. Puffiness generally can persist for three months, especially if the patient breaks the diet and abuses salty foods or does not comply with the regime of wearing linen
Sutures are usually removed on the 7th day (if they were not performed by absorbable threads). Always wear knitwear for a month, then go to the regime indicated by the doctor in charge. The first results of liposuction can be assessed only after three months when the edema subsides and the skin tightens.
Can I forget about the regimen, diet, and sport after successful liposuction? It is believed that the fat tissue in the treated problem zone no longer “grows”. However, this is a dangerous delusion that can quickly destroy the surgeon’s efforts and devalue all the costs of the operation. First, during liposuction, the doctor does not remove all, but only some of the fatty tissue. Unbalanced nutrition and insufficient physical activity lead to the fact that the fat layer can again increase in volumes already in other zones. Secondly, sports significantly improve the result obtained in the framework of liposuction And third, the latest research shows that the body can synthesize new fat cells. Is not this a good incentive to follow the regimen after liposuction, and not to let things go on their own?