Breast cyst: Causes, symptoms and treatment
The breast cyst is a common, single or multiple pathologies of the breast cavity with fluid-like contents formed in the ducts. Usually, the disease is asymptomatic for a long time, and only after the time has elapsed does pain and burning in the mammary gland appear. These symptoms are worse before and during menstruation.
The breast cyst is accompanied by inflammation and suppuration of the cystic cavity. By itself, the disease rarely reborn into cancer, and, nevertheless, has an increased risk of developing tumors. Often accompanied by hormonal pathologies occurring in the genital area. Large cysts change the shape of the breast.
Physiologically, a cyst is a cavity bounded by the connective capsule and filled with a non-inflammatory fluid. This pathology is a consequence of fibrocystic mastopathy.
The cavity is formed due to an increase in one duct of the gland, accumulation of secretion and the gradual formation of a fibrous capsule. Neoplasms have a round, oval or irregular shape. The size ranges from a few millimeters and in difficult cases reach five centimeters. A common cyst has smooth and completely smooth inner walls. With regards to an atypical cyst, then on its walls, it has growths inside the cavity.
Cysts can be as single, in more complex cases – multiple. In the case of polycystic, multiple-sized multiple cysts unite to form multi-chamber clusters. The altered cystic tissue is able to occupy half or more gland tissues.
The cyst cavity may consist of benign cells, but it may also have malignant cells.
A fatty cyst that is not associated with secretory tissue can develop in the chest area. It is formed as a result of blockage of the sebaceous gland and its overflow with a secret. This disease does not cause concern.
The development of cysts in the breast affects hormonal balance. When excessive production of estrogen and hormonal imbalance, as well as when taking hormonal contraceptives, can develop a disorder of sexual hormonal regulation, which leads to the formation of cysts.
The development of cysts provokes pathology of the thyroid gland, mastitis, ovarian dysfunction, inflammation of the genital organs.
Signs and symptoms of breast cyst
Small-sized cysts, very rarely bother the patient. Identified most often by chance, after the passage of mammography. Enlarged cystic formations cause painful sensations, breast lumps are felt, this is manifested several days before menstruation.
Large cysts filled with secretion manifest with constant pain, nagging sensations, burning sensation, uneven compaction.
Breast cyst clinically manifested regardless of the menstrual cycle. Huge, giant cysts are determined by the visible deformation of the mammary gland, redness and even blueness of the skin.
Any inflammation in the cyst is characterized by fever, reddening of the skin, a small or even large increase in axillary lymph nodes.
- Tangible pain in the chest.
- Burning and pulling sensations.
- Change in skin color.
- Breast Deformity.
Causes of breast cyst
Hormonal failure in a woman’s body is not uncommon. At such a moment, the ovaries secrete above the prescribed amount of estrogen, the main female sex hormones. This is what leads to the growth of tissues under the influence of estrogen, the epithelium of the mammary gland, and edema of its tissues. Such processes block some ducts and form cysts.
In practice, the cyst is the main element of fibrocystic mastopathy. If the disease is diffuse, i.e. equally distributed in the mammary glands, many small cysts appear. Nodular mastopathy is characterized by large nodules.
The female hormonal system is neurohumoral and is controlled by the central nervous system. With any impact, the system may cause a failure in its work. The neurohumoral system is most sensitive to all kinds of psycho-emotional stress. First of all, the development of cyst is affected by:
- Long intellectual loadings.
- Constant emotional stress.
- Frequent experience and stress.
- Susceptibility to problems.
Abortions cause the biggest blow to the endocrine system. They can be the cause of disruptions in the body of a woman. Frequent abortions disrupt the work of the ovaries, provoke the release of a large amount of estrogen, the maturation of cysts.
Increased estrogen can cause overweight, especially obesity. Since the cells of adipose tissue contribute to the production of estrogen, in obese women, the chances of hormone-dependent diseases increase.
Malnutrition, another major cause of hormonal imbalance. Poor nutrition causes disruption in the work of metabolism, which sooner or later will affect the neuroendocrine system. Other endocrine glands and their work also affect the condition and activity of the breast.
Any heat treatments and ultraviolet rays stimulate the production of estrogen.
The reasons for the formation of cysts in the mammary glands can serve as an injury. Increases the risk of neoplasms and after surgery. Since the breast tissue is very thin, it reacts to any physical impact. The use of oral contraceptives is a predisposing and frequent factor in the development of a cyst.
Types of breast cyst
Neoplasms, cysts of the breast are defined by several types:
- Cysts are oval, rounded.
- Cysts irregularly shaped.
- Small or large cysts.
- Single or multiple. Polycystic is not only determined by the confluence of cysts, but also by the formation of multi-chamber clusters.
- Single-chamber or multi-chamber cysts.
- Cysts with or without inflammation.
- Typical, having smooth inner walls or atypical, having growths on the walls.
There are atypical, fibrous, ductal, solitary, multi-chamber, cysts of the mammary glands.
Atypical cyst of the mammary gland is an accumulation of fluid, with the expansion of the duct of the gland, in the cavity. Such a cyst has a fibrous capsule, a round, oval shape of different sizes. The atypical cyst is a benign cyst with growths protruding into the cavity.
The main causes of atypical cysts:
- Existing for a long time cyst.
- Often recurrent breast cysts.
- Inflammatory processes occurring in the cyst.
- The presence of papillomatous (benign) growths.
- The presence of papillomatous formations in the cavity of the cyst.
Fibrous cyst of the mammary gland is central to oncology and is a background disease in the development of breast cancer.
The fibrous cyst is Reclus disease, cystic mastopathy, Schimmelbush disease, cystic disease, chronic cystic mastitis. At the moment, these terms are not used in medicine. The following forms are distinguished: non-proliferative and proliferative.
Fibrous cyst of the mammary gland is determined by the characteristic symptoms:
- Before menstruation, pain in the mammary glands increases.
- It feels the presence in the chest, nodular seals.
- Fluid is secreted from the nipples.
The pathogenesis of fibrous mastopathy is not fully understood. There are certain factors that provoke its development:
- Such cysts develop in the tissue during menopause, due to hormonal disruption.
- With the weakening of immunity and disruption of individual organs.
A solitary cyst of the mammary gland is a benign dysplasia, which does not pose a particular danger. But this does not mean that one should not pay attention to it and not engage in treatment. It is necessary to contact a mammologist in time and proceed with treatment, adjust the hormonal background and the protective system.
The solitary cyst is a formation of a round shape and elastic consistency. It is a swelling filled with a liquid of different colors. The longer the cyst, the denser it’s capsule. The solitary cyst is a large cavity that is located in one chest.
The reasons for the development of this form of cyst:
- Neuroendocrine disorders.
- Age after 35 years.
- Great weight.
- Late delivery.
- Stress, nervous strain.
- Complete failure of breastfeeding.
- Early puberty.
- Breast injury.
- A solitary cyst manifests itself with chest pains that strengthen the second phase of menstruation. The pains lasting, pressing and aching. There are a burning sensation and itching in the chest. Such pains are accompanied by constricted nerves of the breast and surrounding tissues. The pains are capable of giving to the scapula, neck or shoulder. As soon as menstruation ends, the pain stops.
Another characteristic symptom is determined by palpation, which can be determined by any woman, especially if the solitary cyst is large.
The ductal cyst of the mammary gland develops at any age but is most often diagnosed after 48 years. This disease has 1% among all breast cancer.
The worst thing is that a duct cyst is a complete precancerous condition, despite the fact that no reliable data has been found.
The ductal cyst is the intraductal papilloma, cystadenopapilomma, which is a small growth inside the breast. Pathology belongs to the group of benign diseases.
Factors of ductal cyst:
- Hormonal disorders.
- Ovarian dysfunction.
- Inflammation of the uterus and ovaries.
- Endocrine diseases.
Clinically, this pathology is manifested by discharge from the nipples of a clear, brown, bloody, or greenish fluid. A ductal cyst can be palpated if it is present in the area of the milk ducts.
The ductal cyst of the mammary gland is palpable in the form of a dense formation, pain is not felt during palpation. The disease is found most often by chance, during a routine examination.
The multi-chamber breast cyst is a very unpleasant diagnosis. At first, one cyst develops, then new ones are born, side by side, after which they merge. This forms a multi-chamber cyst. The disease is detected by ultrasound.
The main factor in the development of pathology is the wrong way of life, but there are other factors:
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
- Nicotine and drug use.
- Improper nutrition.
- Metabolic disease.
- Frequent drug intake.
- Stress, anxiety.
- Hormonal disruptions.
- Infectious Diseases.
Multichamber cyst of the mammary glands is a dangerous disease that can turn into a malignant tumor.
Diagnosis of breast cyst
In order to diagnose an existing medium-sized breast cyst, a standard palpation is sometimes enough for a doctor. If the education is smaller, then you will need to undergo an ultrasound or mammography.
These two diagnostic methods differ from each other not only in the course of implementation but also in the results that the doctor receives. So, an ultrasound helps to clarify whether there are cystic growths inside the breast, it is also possible to distinguish between a cyst and fibroadenoma. According to the results of mammography, you can make a conclusion about their size, shape, and exact quantity.
In addition, the patient may be recommended to undergo an MRI, however, it is performed only in severe cases. After all, there are still disputes between physicists regarding the safety of this procedure for the human body. Although everywhere this method is positioned as absolutely harmless.
In this regard, before you go to the diagnosis with a scanner, you should make sure that it is really needed. If the doctor is not principled in this matter, then it is better to stop on mammography or on ultrasound. This will definitely save the body from unnecessary stress.
A biopsy is performed when there are papillomas inside the formation. A biopsy is performed under the control of an ultrasound machine. This method is necessary in order to continue the possibility of histological examination. According to its results, a cancer tumor can be suspected (if the substance taken for the study has a brown or brown color, and also if a large number of epithelial cells is detected).
Breast cyst treatment
First of all, a woman should turn to a mammologist for examination and determine an effective method of treatment. For the treatment of small cysts, appropriate conservative treatment is selected. For this, it is necessary that the cyst size does not exceed 0.5 mm. In this case, the removal of the tumor is not required. First of all, the doctor directs all his actions to normalize the hormonal balance. To do this, you must be examined by a gynecologist, an immunologist, and an endocrinologist.
In order to resolve the cyst, modern drugs are prescribed, or puncture of the cyst. The doctor makes a puncture, pumps out the fluid and injects a solution to destroy the capsule. This method is suitable for the treatment of single-chamber cyst. If the cyst has atypical features, then the operation is prescribed, and the tissue removed during surgery is sent for histological examination.
Another method for treating cysts is the aspiration. This is a procedure during which a thin cannula is inserted into the cyst cavity, and cystic fluid is pumped out through it. If there are no bloody impurities in this fluid, then treatment is not required. If there are streaks or even traces of blood, then more research is needed.
The cyst can be treated with hormone replacement therapy. For the treatment of cysts, many doctors have resorted to course taking drugs that are aimed at normalizing hormonal levels. In addition to this, this method of treatment strengthens the immune system. Such treatment can cure the disease and eliminate the reappearance of cysts.
If according to the results of observation it becomes clear that the cyst is growing, it is drained. To do this, a cyst is punctured with a thin needle, the contents are aspirated, and either air or ozone is introduced into the resulting cavity. This conservative and low-impact method of therapy is available for implementation only when detecting single-chamber cysts that have not undergone malignancy, within which there are no papillomas. In addition, repeated breast examinations will be required every 6 months, as well as regular follow-up with a mammologist. This will allow timely detection of a possible relapse. The success of the operation depends on how completely the contents of the cyst will be removed, whether there are cells capable of growing, and the ultrasound does not detect fluids, the possibility of recurrence is reduced to 20%. But,
It is necessary to refuse to perform the operation in the clinic where a woman is offered to introduce ethyl alcohol, rather than ozone or air. This is an unsafe treatment that often causes tissue necrosis. Therefore, it is important to clarify all points of the upcoming operation. Even air, in this case, will be preferable to the introduction than alcohol.
If a simple cyst is found, then most often it does not require an operation, but when a parietal mass is detected, the puncture is necessary. This will provide an opportunity to exclude the oncological process. When cancer cells are absent, the woman is offered to undergo a vacuum biopsy. With its help, the growth is removed within half an hour, for which only local anesthesia is used. When cancer cells are still detected, more complex treatment is required at the oncology clinic.
If, after aspiration of the cyst and the introduction of ozone, relapses still occur, but there are no cancer cells, such formation must also be removed using vacuum aspiration.
How safe are such operations? Do not worry about the fact that the breast will be removed if a cyst was found in it. As a rule, even the impressive size of the cyst is removed with the preservation of the mammary gland.
Surgeons strive to make incisions as small as possible since every doctor wants to deliver a woman a minimum of aesthetic discomfort in the future. Therefore, most often such operations do not leave behind any visible traces.
The risk of malignant formation varies from 1 to 4%. That is why it is so important to start treatment in time.
Sectoral resection leaves scars. This may further adversely affect breastfeeding due to the destruction of the ducts. To avoid stagnation, women who plan to give birth should, to the extent possible, avoid intervention.
Laparoscopy (removal of breast cyst)
Doctors sometimes encounter such a situation when the pathology associated with the breast cyst is not cured by conventional methods and cannot be dispensed with by laparoscopy.
Usually, a cyst causes a hormonal disorder and is detected on an ultrasound or mammography. If the disease is detected at an early stage, then it is treated only with medicines. If the doctor suspects the transition of an ordinary cyst to an oncological tumor, then it is important to remove it promptly.
The operation is performed with general anesthesia or local anesthesia. Cuts are made on the chest wall in order to gain access to the cyst. A special instrument for the operation is inserted into one incision, a laparoscope with a built-in video camera is inserted into the other incision. The image is displayed on the monitor thanks to this camera. Thus, experienced surgeons, with a special tool, perform manipulations with the cyst, draw out accumulations of fluid from it, and inject an absorbable fluid.
Laparoscopy is an innovative technique. It is used in various branches of medicine, which allows coping with even the most difficult situations. Thanks to the information displayed on the monitor, what is happening inside, the doctor can implement complex manipulations in the most hard-to-reach places.
Laparoscopy is a complex operation and requires some preparation. First of all, urine, blood tests, biochemical tests, blood clotting tests, ECG tests are prescribed. Before laparoscopy, the patient should abstain from eating 8 hours.
The advantage of laparoscopy:
- Minimal trauma.
- Small, almost imperceptible cuts remain.
- Postoperative wounds heal quickly.
- The minimum number of complications after laparoscopy.
This method of treatment and removal of breast cyst rarely and yet may be accompanied by complications associated with anesthesia, accidental injuries, injuries of blood vessels, infectious complications, the formation of adhesions, hematomas, gray, the formation of a postoperative hernia.